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High PTH (parathyroid hormone)  condition is called Hyperparathyroidism.

The parathyroid glands is found in neck behind thyroid gland infront of voice box in neck. It makes PTH hormone which maintains proper levels of both calcium and phosphorus in your body by turning the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) off when calcium level in blood increasesand secretion of PTH increase whenever calcium level fall in blood due to any cause, much like a thermostat controls a heating system to maintain a constant air temperature.

Normally, this balancing act works well. When calcium levels in your blood fall too low, your parathyroid glands secrete enough PTH to restore the balance. PTH raises calcium levels by releasing calcium from your bones and increasing the amount of calcium absorbed from your small intestine.

When blood-calcium levels are too high, the parathyroid glands produce less PTH. The mineral calcium is best known for its role in keeping your teeth and bones healthy. But calcium has other functions. It aids in the transmission of signals in nerve cells, and it's involved in muscle contraction. Phosphorus, another mineral, works in conjunction with calcium in these areas.


·         Severe calcium deficiency. Your body may not get enough calcium from your diet, often because your digestive system doesn't absorb the calcium from it.

·         Severe vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D helps maintain appropriate levels of calcium in the blood, and it helps your digestive system absorb calcium from your food.

Your body produces vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight, and you consume some vitamin D in food. If you don't get enough vitamin D, then calcium levels may drop.

·         Chronic kidney failure. Your kidneys convert vitamin D into a form that your body can use. If your kidneys function poorly, usable vitamin D may decline and calcium levels drop. Chronic kidney failure is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism.

·         Sometimes parathyroid start over functioning and starts making more pth hormone. This results in high calcium in blood, weak bones, kidney stone & gastric ulcer, decrease sleep anxiety etc may occur

 Treatment :

First  of all proper diagnosis for cause of high PTHneed to made by investigation and correct diagnosis. The treatment is in form of vitamin D and calcium supplement, correction of the basic cause found and other pth receptor modulators are given.

Most patients can be permanently cured in 6 months time



What Is Hyperparathyroidism?

Hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized endocrine glands located in your neck, near or attached to the back of your thyroid. Endocrine glands secrete hormones necessary for the normal functioning of the body.
Despite having similar names and being adjacent in your neck, the parathyroid glands and the thyroid are very different organs. PTH helps regulate the levels of calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus in your bones and blood.
Some people with this condition don’t experience any symptoms and don’t need treatment. Others have mild or severe symptoms that might require surgery.

What Are the Causes of Hyperparathyroidism?

In hyperparathyroidism, one or more of your parathyroid glands becomes overactive and makes excess PTH. This could be due to a tumor, gland enlargement, or other structural problems of the parathyroid glands.
When your calcium levels are too low, your parathyroid glands respond by increasing the production of PTH. This causes your kidneys and intestines to absorb a larger amount of calcium. It also removes more calcium from your bones. PTH production returns to normal when your calcium level goes up again.

What Are the Types of Hyperparathyroidism?

There are three types of hyperparathyroidism: primary, secondary, and tertiary.

Primary Hyperparathyroidism
This type occurs when you have a problem with at least one of your parathyroid glands. Common causes of parathyroid problems include benign growths on the gland and enlargement of at least two glands. In rare cases, a cancerous tumor causes this condition. An increased risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism also occurs in people who:
• have certain inherited disorders that affect several glands throughout the body, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia
• have a long history of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies
• have been exposed to radiation from cancer treatment
• have taken a drug called lithium, which mainly treats bipolar disorder

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
This type occurs when you have an underlying condition that causes your calcium levels to be abnormally low. Most cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism are due to chronic kidney failure that results in low vitamin D and calcium levels.
Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism
This type occurs when your parathyroid glands keep making too much PTH after your calcium levels return to normal. This type usually occurs in people with kidney problems.

What Are the Symptoms of Hyperparathyroidism?

Symptoms can vary from mild to severe, depending on your type of hyperparathyroidism.

Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Some patients don’t have any symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they can range from mild to severe. Milder symptoms may include:
• fatigue
• weakness
• depression
• body aches

More severe symptoms can include:
• appetite loss
• constipation
• vomiting
• nausea
• excessive thirst
• increased urination
• confusion
• memory problems
• kidney stones

Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
With this type, you may have skeletal abnormalities, such as fractures, swollen joints, and bone deformities. Other symptoms depend on the underlying cause, such as chronic kidney failure or severe vitamin D deficiency.





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