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High Insulin

Insulin, a potent hormone released by the pancreas, keeps blood sugar levels in a healthy range. People with type 1 diabetes do not make enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. In type 2 diabetes, however, insulin levels can actually spike in an effort to overcome the body's resistance to its effects. Other causes of high insulin levels include pregnancy and insulin-secreting tumors.
Causes of high insulin are

INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME: Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas. It allows your cells to use glucose (sugar) for energy.
People with insulin resistance have cells that donít use insulin effectively. This means the cells have trouble absorbing glucose, which causes a buildup of sugar in the blood. If your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes, you have a condition called prediabetes.
Itís not entirely clear why some people develop insulin resistance and others donít. Being overweight or obese are the leading risk factors. A sedentary lifestyle can also cause prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, especially if youíre also overweight.
The Effects of Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance often doesnít trigger any noticeable symptoms, especially in the early phases. You could be insulin resistant for years without knowing, especially if your blood glucose levels arenít checked.
Some people with insulin resistance may develop a condition known as acanthosis nigricans. This condition creates dark patches on the back of the neck, groin, and armpits. It also puts you at higher risk for type 2 diabetes. Thereís no cure for acanthosis nigricans, but if you treat the causes, some of your natural skin color may return.
Insulin resistance may also damage your blood vessels without you realizing it. This can increase your risk of heart disease and stroke.
If you have insulin resistance, youíre at significant risk for progressing to diabetes. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be mild, so you may not know you have the condition until a doctor runs diagnostic tests on you.

Insulin-Secreting Tumors:

Depending on the underlying condition, high insulin levels can have different effects. In people with insulin resistance, spikes in insulin can signal the development of type 2 diabetes. While insulin levels are generally not measured directly, the American Diabetes Association recommends close monitoring of blood sugar levels in people with insulin resistance to help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that all pregnant women be screened for gestational diabetes during their third trimester. When an insulin-secreting tumor is suspected, a special CT scan, MRI or ultrasound is usually performed to pinpoint the exact location before surgery to remove the tumor.

2. insulin-secreting tumor, called an insulinoma, can cause high insulin levels. Insulinomas are typically small tumors that are usually found in the pancreas. Women over the age of 50 are most commonly affected. The majority of insulinomas are not cancerous, report authors of a November 2008 review article in "Cases Journal." Even so, an insulinoma can cause dangerously low blood sugar levels due to surges in insulin produced by the tumor. Symptoms of low blood sugar include tremors, sweating, dizziness and confusion.


3. Medications that reduce insulin resistance (insulin-sensitizing and antihyperglycemic effects) include metformin and the thiazolidinediones.
Metformin is a biguanide; it reduces hepatic glucose output and increases the uptake in the peripheral tissues (muscle and adipocytes). Metformin is a major drug in the treatment of patients who are obese and have type 2 diabetes. The drug enhances weight reduction and improves lipid profile and vascular integrity.
Thiazolidinediones lower plasma insulin levels and treat type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance.





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